Genome-wide association study of 40,000 individuals identifies two novel loci associated with bipolar disorder

All 142 authors (show less):
Liping Hou, Bruno Étain, Urban Ösby, Jana Strohmaier, Szabolcs Szelinger, Sarah K. Tighe, Alfonso Tortorella, Gustavo Turecki, Eduard Vieta, Julia Volkert, Stephanie H. Witt, Adam Wright, Peter P. Zandi, Peng Zhang, Sebastian Zollner, Jie Song, Andrea Pfennig, James B. Potash, Peter Propping, Andreas Reif, Eva Reininghaus, John Rice, Marcella Rietschel, Guy A. Rouleau, Janusz K. Rybakowski, Martin Schalling, William A. Scheftner, Peter R. Schofield, Nicholas J. Schork, Thomas G. Schulze, Johannes Schumacher, Barbara W. Schweizer, Giovanni Severino, Markus M. Nothen, Philip B. Mitchell, Tatyana Shekhtman, Marina Mitjans, Paul D. Shilling, Francis M. Mondimore, Christian Simhandl, Palmiero Monteleone, Thomas W. Muhleisen, Urban Osby, Claire M. Slaney, Caroline M. Nievergelt, Erin N. Smith, Tomas Novak, Alessio Squassina, John I. Nurnberger, Thomas Stamm, Pavla Stopkova, Evaristus A. Nwulia, Fabian StreitORCID, Markus M. Nöthen, Sarah E. Bergen, Nirmala Akula, Christina M. Hultman, Jean-Michel Aubry, Lena Backlund, Mikael Landen, Judith A. Badner, Thomas B. Barrett, Michael Bauer, Mazda Adli, Bernhard T. Baune, Frank Bellivier, Antonio Benabarre, Martin Alda, Susanne Bengesser, Wade H. Berrettini, Abesh Kumar Bhattacharjee, Joanna M. Biernacka, Raffaella Ardau, Armin Birner, Cinnamon S. Bloss, Clara Brichant-Petitjean, Barbara Arias, Elise T. Bui, William Byerley, Pablo Cervantes, Caterina Chillotti, Sven Cichon, Francesc Colom, William Coryell, David W. Craig, Cristiana Cruceanu, Piotr M. Czerski, Tony Davis, Bruno Etain, Alexandre Dayer, Franziska Degenhardt, Maria Del Zompo, J. Raymond DePaulo, Howard J. Edenberg, Peter Falkai, Tatiana Foroud, Andreas J. Forstner, Louise Frisen, Mark A. Frye, Janice M. Fullerton, Sebastien Gard, Julie S. Garnham, Elliot S. Gershon, Fernando S. Goes, Tiffany A. Greenwood, Maria Grigoroiu-Serbanescu, Joanna Hauser, Urs Heilbronner, Stefanie Heilmann-Heimbach, Stefan Herms, Maria Hipolito, Shashi Hitturlingappa, Per Hoffmann, Andrea Hofmann, Stephane Jamain, Esther Jimenez, Jean-Pierre Kahn, Layla Kassem, John R. Kelsoe, Sarah Kittel-Schneider, Sebastian Kliwicki, Daniel L. Koller, Barbara Konig, Nina Lackner, Mario Maj, Gonzalo Laje, Maren Lang, Catharina Lavebratt, William B. Lawson, Marion Leboyer, Susan G. Leckband, Chunyu Liu, Anna Maaser, Pamela B. Mahon, Wolfgang Maier, Mirko Manchia, Lina Martinsson, Michael J. McCarthy, Susan L. McElroy, Melvin G. McInnis, Rebecca McKinney, Francis J. McMahonORCID

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Abstract
Bipolar disorder (BD) is a genetically complex mental illness characterized by severe oscillations of mood and behaviour. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified several risk loci that together account for a small portion of the heritability. To identify additional risk loci, we performed a two-stage meta-analysis of >9 million genetic variants in 9,784 bipolar disorder patients and 30,471 controls, the largest GWAS of BD to date. In this study, to increase power we used ∼2,000 lithium-treated cases with a long-term diagnosis of BD from the Consortium on Lithium Genetics, excess controls, and analytic methods optimized for markers on the X-chromosome. In addition to four known loci, results revealed genome-wide significant associations at two novel loci: an intergenic region on 9p21.3 (rs12553324, P = 5.87 × 10 (-) (9); odds ratio (OR) = 1.12) and markers within ERBB2 (rs2517959, P = 4.53 × 10 (-) (9); OR = 1.13). No significant X-chromosome associations were detected and X-linked markers explained very little BD heritability. The results add to a growing list of common autosomal variants involved in BD and illustrate the power of comparing well-characterized cases to an excess of controls in GWAS.