Frontiers Media, Frontiers in Immunology, (4)
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) show great therapeutic potential for the treatment of various immune mediated diseases, including Multiple Sclerosis (MS). Systemic administration of MSCs during experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model for MS, was shown to reduce the infiltration of T cells, B cells, and macrophages into the CNS. Whether endogenous MSCs are mobilized and potentially modulate the severity of disease is not known. Here we show that during the acute phase of EAE, MSCs numbers in the bone marrow were severely reduced, which restored to control levels during the progressive phase of the disease. The number of bone marrow MSCs inversely correlated with the number of both CD4 and CD8 T cells present in the bone marrow indicating a link between activated T cells and MSC mobilization. Analysis of CD70-transgenic mice, which have a constitutively activated immune system and elevated number of activated T cells in the bone marrow, showed severely reduced number of bone marrow MSCs. Transfer of T cells that were activated through their CD27 receptor reduced the number of bone marrow MSCs dependent on IFN-y. These data provide a mechanism by which MSCs can be mobilized from the bone marrow in order to contribute to tissue repair at a distant location.