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American Heart Association, Hypertension, 1(46), p. 232-237, 2005

DOI: 10.1161/



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Advanced Glycation End Products Are Associated With Pulse Pressure in Type 1 Diabetes

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We investigated the associations of pulse pressure (a measure of arterial stiffness) with the early glycation products hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and Amadori albumin and the advanced glycation end products pentosidine, N ε -(carboxymethyl)lysine and N ε -(carboxyethyl)lysine in a large group of type 1 diabetic individuals of the EURODIAB Prospective Complications Study. We did a cross-sectional nested case-control study from the EURODIAB Prospective Complications Study of 543 (278 men) European individuals with type 1 diabetes diagnosed at <36 years of age. We used linear regression analyses to investigate the association of pulse pressure with glycation products. Pulse pressure was significantly associated with plasma levels of N ε -(carboxymethyl)lysine and N ε -(carboxyethyl)lysine but not with HbA1c, Amadori albumin, and urinary levels of pentosidine. Regression coefficients adjusted for age, sex, mean arterial pressure, and duration of diabetes were 0.09 mm Hg ( P =0.003) per 1 μM/M lysine N ε -(carboxymethyl)lysine; 0.24 mm Hg ( P =0.001) and −0.03 mm Hg ( P =0.62) per 1 μM/M lysine N ε -(carboxyethyl)lysine (in individuals with and without complications, respectively; P interaction=0.002); and 0.50 mm Hg ( P =0.16) per 1% HbA1c; 0.07 mm Hg ( P =0.12) per 1 U/mL Amadori albumin; and 0.77 mm Hg ( P =0.48) per 1 nmol/mmol creatinine pentosidine. In young type 1 diabetic individuals, arterial stiffness is strongly associated with the advanced glycation end products N ε -(carboxymethyl)lysine and N ε -(carboxyethyl)lysine. These findings suggest that the formation of advanced glycation end products is an important pathway in the development of arterial stiffness in young type 1 diabetic individuals.