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Springer (part of Springer Nature), Brain Topography, 4(18), p. 257-272

DOI: 10.1007/s10548-006-0004-z



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Frequency-Following and Connectivity of Different Visual Areas in Response to Contrast-Reversal Stimulation

Journal article published in 2006 by Julia M. Stephen ORCID, Doug F. Ranken, Cheryl J. Aine
This paper is available in a repository.
This paper is available in a repository.

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The sensitivity of visual areas to different temporal frequencies, as well as the functional connections between these areas, was examined using magnetoencephalography (MEG). Alternating circular sinusoids (0, 3.1, 8.7 and 14 Hz) were presented to foveal and peripheral locations in the visual field to target ventral and dorsal stream structures, respectively. It was hypothesized that higher temporal frequencies would preferentially activate dorsal stream structures. To determine the effect of frequency on the cortical response we analyzed the late time interval (220-770 ms) using a multi-dipole spatio-temporal analysis approach to provide source locations and timecourses for each condition. As an exploratory aspect, we performed cross-correlation analysis on the source timecourses to determine which sources responded similarly within conditions. Contrary to predictions, dorsal stream areas were not activated more frequently during high temporal frequency stimulation. However, across cortical sources the frequency-following response showed a difference, with significantly higher power at the second harmonic for the 3.1 and 8.7 Hz stimulation and at the first and second harmonics for the 14 Hz stimulation with this pattern seen robustly in area V1. Cross-correlations of the source timecourses showed that both low- and high-order visual areas, including dorsal and ventral stream areas, were significantly correlated in the late time interval. The results imply that frequency information is transferred to higher-order visual areas without translation. Despite the less complex waveforms seen in the late interval of time, the cross-correlation results show that visual, temporal and parietal cortical areas are intricately involved in late-interval visual processing.