High surface area TiO2 nanoparticles by a freeze-drying approach for dye-sensitized solar cells

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Publisher: Royal Society of Chemistry (Open Access)

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We outline a simple protocol for fabricating high surface area (similar to 86 m(2) g(-1)) TiO2 nanoparticles via freeze-drying of a composite of a TiO2 precursor ((Ti(IV) isopropoxide)) and a polymer (polyester) solution. The composite upon freeze-drying results in a porous mass which on subsequent sintering results in degradation of the polymer and formation of TiO2 nanoparticles. The TiO2 particles when employed as a photoanode of dye-sensitized solar cells show an efficiency (eta) of similar to 7%.