MDPI, Molecules, 3(28), p. 1019, 2023
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is one of the most antibiotic multi-resistant bacteria, causing chronic pulmonary disease and leading to respiratory failure and even mortality. Thus, there has been an ever-increasing search for novel and preferably natural antimicrobial compounds. Agrimonia eupatoria L. and Origanum vulgare L. shoots are commonly used as teas or alcoholic tinctures for their human health-promoting and antibacterial properties. Here, we explored the antimicrobial effects of all plant parts, i.e., leaf, flower, stem, and root extracts, prepared in water or in 60% ethanol, against P. aeruginosa. The impact of these extracts on bacterial survival was determined using a luminescent strain of P. aeruginosa, which emits light when alive. In addition, the antimicrobial effects were compared with the antioxidant properties and content of phenolic compounds of plant extracts. Ethanolic extracts of O. vulgare roots and flowers showed the highest antimicrobial activity, followed by A. eupatoria roots. In particular, chlorogenic acid, the ethanolic extract of O. vulgare roots contained high levels of protocatechuic acid, hesperidin, shikimic acid, rutin, quercetin, and morin. The synergistic effects of these phenolic compounds and flavonoids may play a key role in the antibacterial activity of teas and tinctures.