Oxford University Press, Neuro-Oncology Advances, 1(4), 2022
Abstract Background Ependymomas, pilocytic astrocytomas, medulloblastomas, and intracranial germ cell tumors occur relative frequently in children, but are rare central nervous system (CNS) tumors in adults. In this population-based survey, we established incidence, treatment, and survival patterns for these tumors diagnosed in adult patients (≥18 years) over a 30-year period (1989–2018). Methods Data on 1384 ependymomas, 454 pilocytic astrocytomas, 205 medulloblastomas, and 112 intracranial germ cell tumors were obtained from the Netherlands Cancer Registry (NCR) on the basis of a histopathological diagnosis. For each tumor type, age-standardized incidence rates and estimated annual percentage change were calculated. Trends in incidence and main treatment modalities were reported per 5-year periods. Overall survival was calculated using the Kaplan–Meier method, and relative survival rates were estimated using the Pohar-Perme estimator. Results Incidence and survival rates remained generally stable for pilocytic astrocytomas, medulloblastomas, and germ cell tumors. Increasing incidence was observed for spinal ependymomas, mostly for myxopapillary ependymomas, and survival improved over time for grade II ependymomas (P < .01). Treatment patterns varied over time with shifting roles for surgery in ependymomas and for chemotherapy and radiation in medulloblastomas and germinomas. Conclusions The study provides baseline information for highly needed national and international standard treatment protocols, and thus for further improving patient outcomes in these rare CNS tumors.