American Society of Hematology, Blood, 20(140), p. 2101-2112, 2022
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Abstract Historically, Philadelphia chromosome-positive (Ph+) acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) has been associated with poor outcomes, and allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) is recommended in first complete remission (CR1). However, in the tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) era, rapid attainment of a complete molecular remission (CMR) is associated with excellent outcomes without allo-HCT, suggesting transplant may not be required for these patients. To test this hypothesis, we retrospectively identified adult patients with Ph+ ALL treated with induction therapy, including TKIs, and attained CMR within 90 days of diagnosis at 5 transplant centers in the United States. We compared outcomes of those who did and did not receive allo-HCT in first remission. We identified 230 patients (allo-HCT: 98; non-HCT: 132). The allo-HCT cohort was younger with better performance status. On multivariable analysis (MVA), allo-HCT was not associated with improved overall survival (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR]: 1.05; 95% CI, 0.63-1.73) or relapse-free survival (aHR: 0.86; 95% CI, 0.54-1.37) compared with non-HCT treatment. Allo-HCT was associated with a lower cumulative incidence of relapse (aHR: 0.32; 95% CI, 0.17-0.62) but higher non-relapse mortality (aHR: 2.59; 95% CI, 1.37-4.89). Propensity score matching analysis confirmed results of MVA. Comparison of reduced-intensity HCT to non-HCT showed no statistically significant difference in any of the above endpoints. In conclusion, adult patients with Ph+ ALL who achieved CMR within 90 days of starting treatment did not derive a survival benefit from allo-HCT in CR1 in this retrospective study.