Springer, Pflügers Archiv European Journal of Physiology, 5(474), p. 487-504, 2022
AbstractThe detection of H+ concentration variations in the extracellular milieu is accomplished by a series of specialized and non-specialized pH-sensing mechanisms. The proton-activated G protein–coupled receptors (GPCRs) GPR4 (Gpr4), TDAG8 (Gpr65), and OGR1 (Gpr68) form a subfamily of proteins capable of triggering intracellular signaling in response to alterations in extracellular pH around physiological values, i.e., in the range between pH 7.5 and 6.5. Expression of these receptors is widespread for GPR4 and OGR1 with particularly high levels in endothelial cells and vascular smooth muscle cells, respectively, while expression of TDAG8 appears to be more restricted to the immune compartment. These receptors have been linked to several well-studied pH-dependent physiological activities including central control of respiration, renal adaption to changes in acid–base status, secretion of insulin and peripheral responsiveness to insulin, mechanosensation, and cellular chemotaxis. Their role in pathological processes such as the genesis and progression of several inflammatory diseases (asthma, inflammatory bowel disease), and tumor cell metabolism and invasiveness, is increasingly receiving more attention and makes these receptors novel and interesting targets for therapy. In this review, we cover the role of these receptors in physiological processes and will briefly discuss some implications for disease processes.