Published in

MDPI, Viruses, 4(14), p. 659, 2022

DOI: 10.3390/v14040659



Export citation

Search in Google Scholar

Genomic Epidemiology of SARS-CoV-2 in Tocantins State and the Diffusion of P.1.7 and AY.99.2 Lineages in Brazil

This paper is made freely available by the publisher.
This paper is made freely available by the publisher.

Full text: Download

Green circle
Preprint: archiving allowed
Green circle
Postprint: archiving allowed
Green circle
Published version: archiving allowed
Data provided by SHERPA/RoMEO


Tocantins is a state in the cross-section between the Central-West, North and Northeast regions of Brazilian territory; it is a gathering point for travelers and transportation from the whole country. In this study, 9493 genome sequences, including 241 local SARS-CoV-2 samples (collected from 21 December 2020, to 16 December 2021, and sequenced in the MinION platform) were analyzed with the following aims: (i) identify the relative prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 lineages in the state of Tocantins; (ii) analyze them phylogenetically against global SARS-CoV-2 sequences; and (iii) hypothesize the viral dispersal routes of the two most abundant lineages found in our study using phylogenetic and phylogeographic approaches. The performed analysis demonstrated that the majority of the strains sequenced during the period belong to the Gamma P.1.7 (32.4%) lineage, followed by Delta AY.99.2 (27.8%), with the first detection of VOC Omicron. As expected, there was mainly a dispersion of P.1.7 from the state of São Paulo to Tocantins, with evidence of secondary spreads from Tocantins to Goiás, Mato Grosso, Amapá, and Pará. Rio de Janeiro was found to be the source of AY.99.2 and from then, multiple cluster transmission was observed across Brazilian states, especially São Paulo, Paraiba, Federal District, and Tocantins. These data show the importance of trade routes as pathways for the transportation of the virus from Southeast to Northern Brazil.