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American Heart Association, Stroke, 11(52), p. 3633-3641, 2021

DOI: 10.1161/strokeaha.120.033124



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Endovascular Treatment Effect Diminishes With Increasing Thrombus Perviousness

This paper was not found in any repository, but could be made available legally by the author.
This paper was not found in any repository, but could be made available legally by the author.

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Background and Purpose: Thrombus perviousness estimates residual flow along a thrombus in acute ischemic stroke, based on radiological images, and may influence the benefit of endovascular treatment for acute ischemic stroke. We aimed to investigate potential endovascular treatment (EVT) effect modification by thrombus perviousness. Methods: We included 443 patients with thin-slice imaging available, out of 1766 patients from the pooled HERMES (Highly Effective Reperfusion Evaluated in Multiple Endovascular Stroke trials) data set of 7 randomized trials on EVT in the early window (most within 8 hours). Control arm patients (n=233) received intravenous alteplase if eligible (212/233; 91%). Intervention arm patients (n=210) received additional EVT (prior alteplase in 178/210; 85%). Perviousness was quantified by thrombus attenuation increase on admission computed tomography angiography compared with noncontrast computed tomography. Multivariable regression analyses were performed including multiplicative interaction terms between thrombus attenuation increase and treatment allocation. In case of significant interaction, subgroup analyses by treatment arm were performed. Our primary outcome was 90-day functional outcome (modified Rankin Scale score), resulting in an adjusted common odds ratio for a one-step shift towards improved outcome. Secondary outcomes were mortality, successful reperfusion (extended Thrombolysis in Cerebral Infarction score, 2B–3), and follow-up infarct volume (in mL). Results: Increased perviousness was associated with improved functional outcome. After adding a multiplicative term of thrombus attenuation increase and treatment allocation, model fit improved significantly ( P =0.03), indicating interaction between perviousness and EVT benefit. Control arm patients showed significantly better outcomes with increased perviousness (adjusted common odds ratio, 1.2 [95% CI, 1.1–1.3]). In the EVT arm, no significant association was found (adjusted common odds ratio, 1.0 [95% CI, 0.9–1.1]), and perviousness was not significantly associated with successful reperfusion. Follow-up infarct volume (12% [95% CI, 7.0–17] per 5 Hounsfield units) and chance of mortality (adjusted odds ratio, 0.83 [95% CI, 0.70–0.97]) decreased with higher thrombus attenuation increase in the overall population, without significant treatment interaction. Conclusions: Our study suggests that the benefit of best medical care including alteplase, compared with additional EVT, increases in patients with more pervious thrombi.