Published in

Oxford University Press (OUP), Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 2021

DOI: 10.1210/clinem/dgab512

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Approach to the patient with adrenal incidentaloma

Journal article published in 2021 by Irina Bancos ORCID, Alessandro Prete ORCID
This paper was not found in any repository, but could be made available legally by the author.
This paper was not found in any repository, but could be made available legally by the author.

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Abstract

Abstract Adrenal tumors are commonly discovered incidentally, on cross-sectional abdominal imaging performed for reasons other than adrenal mass. Incidence of adrenal tumors increased 10-fold in the last two decades, with most diagnosed in older adults. In any patient with a newly discovered adrenal mass determining whether the adrenal mass is malignant and whether it is hormonally active is equally important to guide the best management. Malignancy is diagnosed in 5-8% of patients with adrenal tumors, with a higher risk in young patients, if history of extra-adrenal malignancy, in those with large adrenal tumors with indeterminate imaging characteristics, and in bilateral adrenal tumors. While overt hormone excess is uncommon in adrenal incidentalomas, mild autonomous cortisol secretion can be diagnosed in up to 30-50% of patients. As autonomous cortisol secretion is associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and metabolic abnormalities, all patients with adrenal incidentalomas require work up with dexamethasone suppression test. Management of adrenal tumors varies based on etiology, associated comorbidities, and patient’s preference. This article reviews the current evidence on the diagnosis and evaluation of patients with adrenal mass and focuses on management of the most common etiologies of adrenal incidentalomas.