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Freund Publishing House, Journal of Basic and Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology, 0(0), 2021

DOI: 10.1515/jbcpp-2020-0310

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Evidence that Ginkgo Biloba could use in the influenza and coronavirus COVID-19 infections

Journal article published in 2021 by Manal A. Ibrahim, Hanan H. Ramadan, Rasha N. Mohammed
Distributing this paper is prohibited by the publisher
Distributing this paper is prohibited by the publisher

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Abstract

Abstract Coronavirus COVID-19 pandemic invades the world. Public health evaluates the incidence of infections and death, which should be reduced and need desperately quarantines for infected individuals. This article review refers to the roles of Ginkgo Biloba to reduce the risk of infection in the respiratory tract, the details on the epidemiology of corona COVID-19 and influenza, and it highlights how the Ginko Biloba could have been used as a novel treatment. Ginkgo Biloba can reduce the risk of infection by several mechanisms; these mechanisms involve Ginkgo Biloba contains quercetin and other constituents, which have anti-inflammatory and immune modulator effects by reducing pro-inflammatory cytokines concentrations. Cytokines cause inflammation which have been induced the injuries in lung lining. Some observational studies confirmed that Ginkgo Biloba reduced the risk of asthma, sepsis and another respiratory disease as well as it reduced the risk of cigarette smoking on respiratory symptoms. While other evidences suggested the characters of Ginkgo Biloba as an antivirus agent through several mechanisms. Ginkgolic acid (GA) can inhibit the fusion and synthesis of viral proteins, thus, it inhibit the Herpes Simplex Virus type1 (HSV-1), genome replication in Human Cytomegalovirus (HCMV) and the infections of the Zika Virus (ZIKV). Also, it inhibits the wide spectrum of fusion by inhibiting the three types of proteins that have been induced fusion as (Influenza A Virus [IAV], Epstein Barr Virus [EBV], HIV and Ebola Virus [EBOV]). The secondary mechanism of GA targeting inhibition of the DNA and protein synthesis in virus, greatly have been related to its strong effects, even afterward the beginning of the infection, therefore, it potentially treats the acute viral contaminations like (Measles and Coronavirus COVID-19). Additionally, it has been used topically as an effective agent on vigorous lesions including (varicella-zoster virus [VZV], HSV-1 and HSV-2). Ginkgo Biloba may be useful for treating the infected people with coronavirus COVID-19 through its beneficial effect. To assess those recommendations should be conducted with random control trials and extensive population studies.