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Cambridge University Press, Public Health Nutrition, 15(24), p. 5006-5014, 2021

DOI: 10.1017/s1368980020005340



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Dietary patterns associated with subclinical atherosclerosis: a cross-sectional analysis of the ELSA-Brasil study

This paper was not found in any repository, but could be made available legally by the author.
This paper was not found in any repository, but could be made available legally by the author.

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AbstractObjective:To identify dietary patterns associated with subclinical atherosclerosis measured as coronary artery calcification (CAC).Design:Cross-sectional analysis of data from the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health. Dietary data were assessed using a FFQ, and a principal component factor analysis was used to derive the dietary patterns. Scree plot, eigenvalues > 1 and interpretability were considered to retain the factors. CAC was measured using a computed tomography scanner and an electrocardiography-gated prospective Ca score examination and was categorised into three groups based on the CAC score: 0, 1–100 and >100 Agatston units. Multinomial regression models were conducted for dietary patterns and CAC severity categories.Setting:Brazil, São Paulo, 2008–2010.Participants:Active and retired civil servants who lived in São Paulo and underwent a CAC exam were included (n 4025).Results:Around 10 % of participants (294 men, 97 women) had a detectable CAC (>0), 6·5 % (182 men, 73 women) had a CAC of 1–100 and 3·5 % (110 men, 23 women) had a CAC > 100. Three dietary patterns were identified: convenience food, which was positively associated with atherosclerotic calcification; plant-based and dairy food, which showed no association with CAC; and the traditional Brazilian food pattern (rice, legumes and meats), which was inversely associated with atherosclerotic calcification.Conclusions:Our results showed that a dietary pattern consisting of traditional Brazilian foods could be important to reducing the risk of atherosclerotic calcification and prevent future cardiovascular events, whereas a convenience dietary pattern was positively associated with this outcome.