Published in

MDPI, Forests, 11(11), p. 1179, 2020

DOI: 10.3390/f11111179



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The Complete Plastid Genome of Artocarpus camansi: A High Degree of Conservation of the Plastome Structure in the Family Moraceae

This paper is made freely available by the publisher.
This paper is made freely available by the publisher.

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Understanding the plastid genome is extremely important for the interpretation of the genetic mechanisms associated with essential physiological and metabolic functions, the identification of possible marker regions for phylogenetic or phylogeographic analyses, and the elucidation of the modes through which natural selection operates in different regions of this genome. In the present study, we assembled the plastid genome of Artocarpus camansi, compared its repetitive structures with Artocarpus heterophyllus, and searched for evidence of synteny within the family Moraceae. We also constructed a phylogeny based on 56 chloroplast genes to assess the relationships among three families of the order Rosales, that is, the Moraceae, Rhamnaceae, and Cannabaceae. The plastid genome of A. camansi has 160,096 bp, and presents the typical circular quadripartite structure of the Angiosperms, comprising a large single copy (LSC) of 88,745 bp and a small single copy (SSC) of 19,883 bp, separated by a pair of inverted repeat (IR) regions each with a length of 25,734 bp. The total GC content was 36.0%, which is very similar to Artocarpus heterophyllus (36.1%) and other moraceous species. A total of 23,068 codons and 80 SSRs were identified in the A. camansi plastid genome, with the majority of the SSRs being mononucleotide (70.0%). A total of 50 repeat structures were observed in the A. camansi plastid genome, in contrast with 61 repeats in A. heterophyllus. A purifying selection signal was found in 70 of the 79 protein-coding genes, indicating that they have all been highly conserved throughout the evolutionary history of the genus. The comparative analysis of the structural characteristics of the chloroplast among different moraceous species found a high degree of similarity in the sequences, which indicates a highly conserved evolutionary model in these plastid genomes. The phylogenetic analysis also recovered a high degree of similarity between the chloroplast genes of A. camansi and A. heterophyllus, and reconfirmed the hypothesis of the intense conservation of the plastome in the family Moraceae.