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MDPI, Molecules, 15(25), p. 3547, 2020

DOI: 10.3390/molecules25153547



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The Influence of Anthocyanidin Profile on Antileishmanial Activity of Arrabidaea chica Morphotypes

This paper is made freely available by the publisher.
This paper is made freely available by the publisher.

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Arrabidaea chica Verlot (crajiru) is a plant used in folk medicine as an astringent, anti-inflammatory, wound healing and to treat fungal and viral diseases such as measles chickenpox and herpes. Arrabidaea chica has several morphotypes recognized but little is known about its chemical variability. In the present study the anthocyanidin profile of A. chica morphotypes collected in two seasons (summer and winter) have been examined and their activity against Leishmania infection compared. High-performance liquid chromatography coupled to a diode-array detector (HPLC-DAD-UV) and by tandem mass spectrometry with electrospray ionization (ESI-MS/MS) were used for anthocyanidin separation and identification. Antileishmanial activity was measured against promastigote forms of Leishmania amazonensis. Multivariate analysis, principal component analysis (PCA) and Pearson’s correlation were performed to classify morphotypes accordingly to their anthocyanidin profile. The presence of 6,7,3′,4′-tetrahydroxy-5-methoxyflavylium (3′-hydroxy-carajurone) (1), carajurone (2), 6,7,3′-trihydroxy-5,4′-dimethoxy-flavylium (3′-hydroxy-carajurin) (3) and carajurin (4), and three unidentified anthocyanidins were detected. Two different groups were recognized: group I containing 3′-hydroxy-carajurone; and group II with high content of carajurin. Among anthocyanidins identified in the extracts, only carajurin showed significant statistical correlation (p = 0.030) with activity against L. amazonensis. Carajurin could thus be considered as a pharmacological marker for the antileishmanial potential of the species.