Nature Research, npj Digital Medicine, 1(3), 2020
AbstractThe machine learning community has become alert to the ways that predictive algorithms can inadvertently introduce unfairness in decision-making. Herein, we discuss how concepts of algorithmic fairness might apply in healthcare, where predictive algorithms are being increasingly used to support decision-making. Central to our discussion is the distinction between algorithmic fairness and algorithmic bias. Fairness concerns apply specifically when algorithms are used to support polar decisions (i.e., where one pole of prediction leads to decisions that are generally more desired than the other), such as when predictions are used to allocate scarce health care resources to a group of patients that could all benefit. We review different fairness criteria and demonstrate their mutual incompatibility. Even when models are used to balance benefits-harms to make optimal decisions for individuals (i.e., for non-polar decisions)–and fairness concerns are not germane–model, data or sampling issues can lead to biased predictions that support decisions that are differentially harmful/beneficial across groups. We review these potential sources of bias, and also discuss ways to diagnose and remedy algorithmic bias. We note that remedies for algorithmic fairness may be more problematic, since we lack agreed upon definitions of fairness. Finally, we propose a provisional framework for the evaluation of clinical prediction models offered for further elaboration and refinement. Given the proliferation of prediction models used to guide clinical decisions, developing consensus for how these concerns can be addressed should be prioritized.