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Wiley, Clinical and Experimental Immunology, 3(156), p. 428-433

DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2249.2009.03926.x



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Modulation of muramyl dipeptide stimulation of cytokine production by blood components

Journal article published in 2009 by J. H. van der Meer, J. H. M. van der Meer ORCID, M. G. Netea, C. A. Dinarello
This paper is made freely available by the publisher.
This paper is made freely available by the publisher.

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Muramyl dipeptide (MDP) is the minimal active fragment of peptidoglycan of the cell wall of Gram-positive bacteria, with potential beneficial effects as a vaccine adjuvant. Peptidoglycans and MDP are recognized by the intracellular receptor NOD2 (nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain 2), leading to production of proinflammatory cytokines. In the present study, it is shown that, despite stimulatory effects on isolated human mononuclear cells, MDP does not stimulate production of tumour necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-1beta or interleukin-6 in a whole-blood assay. However, MDP retains synergistic effects on lipopolysaccharide-induced cytokines in whole blood. Screening tests of NOD2 function based on whole-blood stimulation should therefore employ strategies based on the synergistic effects of MDP on Toll-like receptor-induced cytokine production. Plasma was not responsible for the inhibition of MDP in whole blood. The inhibition of MDP stimulation was dependent upon cellular components, with erythrocyte-derived haemoglobin and neutrophils collaborating in the inhibition of MDP effects in whole blood.