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National Academy of Sciences, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 12(110), p. 4673-4678

DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1217238110

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Identification of genetic variants influencing the human plasma proteome

This paper is made freely available by the publisher.
This paper is made freely available by the publisher.

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Abstract

Genetic variants influencing the transcriptome have been extensively studied. However, the impact of the genetic factors on the human proteome is largely unexplored, mainly due to lack of suitable high-throughput methods. Here we present unique and comprehensive identification of genetic variants affecting the human plasma protein profile by combining high-throughput and high-resolution mass spectrometry (MS) with genome-wide SNP data. We identified and quantified the abundance of 1,056 tryptic-digested peptides, representing 163 proteins in the plasma of 1,060 individuals from two population-based cohorts. The abundance level of almost one-fifth (19%) of the peptides was found to be heritable, with heritability ranging from 0.08 to 0.43. The levels of 60 peptides from 25 proteins, 15% of the proteins studied, were influenced by cis-acting SNPs. We identified and replicated individual cis-acting SNPs (combined P value ranging from 3.1 × 10−52 to 2.9 × 10−12) influencing 11 peptides from 5 individual proteins. These SNPs represent both regulatory SNPs and nonsynonymous changes defining well-studied disease alleles such as the ɛ4 allele of apolipoprotein E (APOE), which has been shown to increase risk of Alzheimer's disease. Our results show that high-throughput mass spectrometry represents a promising method for large-scale characterization of the human proteome, allowing for both quantification and sequencing of individual proteins. Abundance and peptide composition of a protein plays an important role in the etiology, diagnosis, and treatment of a number of diseases. A better understanding of the genetic impact on the plasma proteome is therefore important for evaluating potential biomarkers and therapeutic agents for common diseases.