Journal of Clinical Nutrition & Dietetics, 3(2)
Patients with type 1 and 2 diabetes have a higher risk of cardiovascular disease compared to non-diabetic populations. Improved dietary quality is essential to control risk factors and can prevent or delay cardiovascular disease in diabetic patients. Higher dietary fibre intake was inversely associated with cardiovascular disease in several general population studies. However, in diabetes mellitus, and especially type 1 diabetes, little information is available. A literature study was performed to summarize the available evidence for a possible relationship between fibre consumption from natural foods and the risk of developing cardiovascular disease in people with type 2 and type 1 diabetes. In November and December 2014, PubMed was searched for relevant articles. The full texts of 15 articles were reviewed. Prospective cohort studies reported an inverse association between dietary fibre intake and all-cause and cardiovascular disease mortality risk in both diabetes types. Randomized controlled trials were inconsistent. For type 2 diabetes, dietary fibre intake was related to lower plasma glucose and plasma lipid levels. In terms of foods, mainly legume and cereal fibre, vegetables and fruits were found to beneficially influence cardiovascular risk in patients with type 2 diabetes. For type 1 diabetes, no foods were investigated, but dietary fibre had some beneficial effects on cardiovascular risk factors from limited trials. To lower CVD risk in people with type 1 diabetes in the future, the potential of raising fibre in the diet should be further explored.