Molecular Characterization of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 in Women and Their Vertically Infected Children
Around 35 million people worldwide are infected with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) around 3.2 million of whom are children under 15 years. Mother-to-child-transmission (MTCT) of HIV-1 accounts for 90% of all infections in children. Despite great advances in the prevention of MTCT in Brazil, children are still becoming infected. Samples from 19 HIV-1 infected families were collected. DNA was extracted, fragments from gag, pol and env were amplified and sequenced directly. Phylogenetic reconstruction was performed. Drug resistance analyses were performed in pol and env sequences. We found 82.1% of subtype B and 17.9% of BF recombinants. A prevalence of 43.9% drug resistance-associated mutations in pol sequences was identified. 33.3% of the drug-naïve children presented at least 1 mutation related to PI/NRTI/NNRTI resistance. The prevalence of transmitted drug resistance mutations was 4.9%. On env we found a low prevalence of HR1 (4.9%) and HR2 (14.6%) mutations.