Ionic Liquid-Assisted Synthesis of Dual-Doped Graphene as Efficient Electrocatalysts for Oxygen Reduction

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Abstract
Dual-doped graphene is synthesized by a facile solvothermal method with the assistance of ionic liquids containing both N and X (X=B, P or S) atoms. All three types of co-doped graphene present excellent catalytic activity, demonstrating preferred four-electron selectivity and low peroxide yields toward oxygen reduction reaction in alkaline solution. Particularly, N, P-graphene exhibits superior catalytic activity to its counterparts in terms of half-wave potential (ΔE1/2= -70 mV relative to commercial Pt/C), methanol tolerance and long-term stability. This could be attributed to the unique porous nanostructure, change of charge density and high distortion of carbon structures originating from the combination of large electronegativity of N element and big covalent radius of P atoms.