Synthesis, Binding and Antiviral Properties of Potent Core-Extended Naphthalene Diimides Targeting the HIV-1 Long Terminal Repeat Promoter G-Quadruplexes

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Abstract
We have previously reported that stabilization of the G-quadruplex structures in the HIV-1 Long Terminal Repeat (LTR) promoter suppresses viral transcription. Here we sought to develop new G-quadruplex ligands to be exploited as antiviral compounds by enhancing binding towards the viral G-quadruplex structures. We synthesized naphthalene diimide derivatives with a lateral expansion of the aromatic core. The new compounds were able to bind/stabilize the G-quadruplex to a high extent and some of them displayed clear-cut selectivity towards the viral G-quadruplexes with respect to the human telomeric G-quadruplexes. This feature translated into low nanomolar anti-HIV-1 activity towards two viral strains and encouraging selectivity indexes. The selectivity depended on specific recognition of LTR loop residues; the mechanism of action was ascribed to inhibition of LTR promoter activity in cells. This is the first example of G-quadruplex ligands that show increased selectivity towards the viral G-quadruplexes and display remarkable antiviral activity.