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World Scientific Publishing, Journal of Mathematical Logic, 01(11), p. 61-85

DOI: 10.1142/s0219061311001006

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Chain models, trees of singular cardinality and dynamic EF-games

Journal article published in 2011 by Mirna Džamonja, Jouko Väänänen
This paper is available in a repository.
This paper is available in a repository.

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Abstract

Let κ be a singular cardinal. Karp's notion of a chain model of size κ is defined to be an ordinary model of size κ along with a decomposition of it into an increasing union of length cf (κ). With a notion of satisfaction and (chain)-isomorphism such models give an infinitary logic largely mimicking first order logic. In this paper we associate to this logic a notion of a dynamic EF-game which gauges when two chain models are chain-isomorphic. To this game is associated a tree which is a tree of size κ with no κ-branches (even no cf (κ)-branches). The measure of how non-isomorphic the models are is reflected by a certain order on these trees, called reduction. We study the collection of trees of size κ with no κ-branches under this notion and prove that when cf (κ) = ω this collection is rather regular; in particular it has universality number exactly κ+. Such trees are then used to develop a descriptive set theory of the space cf (κ)κ. The main result of the paper gives in the case of κ strong limit singular an exact connection between the descriptive set-theoretic complexity of the chain isomorphism orbit of a model, the reduction order on the trees and winning strategies in the corresponding dynamic EF games. In particular we obtain a neat analog of the notion of Scott watershed from the Scott analysis of countable models.