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Human Kinetics, Journal of Applied Biomechanics

DOI: 10.1123/jab.2015-0162



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Force–Velocity Relationship of Upper Body Muscles: Traditional Versus Ballistic Bench Press

Journal article published in 2016 by Amador García-Ramos, Slobodan Jaric, Paulino Padial, Belén Feriche ORCID
This paper was not found in any repository, but could be made available legally by the author.
This paper was not found in any repository, but could be made available legally by the author.

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Data provided by SHERPA/RoMEO


This study aimed at (1) evaluating the linearity of the force-velocity relationship, as well as the reliability of maximum force (F0), maximum velocity (V0), slope (α), and maximum power (P0); (2) comparing these parameters between the traditional and ballistic bench press (BP); and (3) determining the correlation of F0 with the directly measured BP 1-repetition maximum (1RM). Thirty-two men randomly performed 2 sessions of traditional BP and 2 sessions of ballistic BP during 2 consecutive weeks. Both the maximum and mean values of force and velocity were recorded when loaded by 20-70% of 1RM. All force-velocity relationships were strongly linear (r > 0.99). While F0 and P0 were highly reliable (ICC [intraclass correlation coefficient]: 0.91-0.96, CV [coefficient of variation]: 3.8-5.1%), lower reliability was observed for V0 and α (ICC: 0.49-0.81, CV: 6.6-11.8%). Trivial differences between exercises were found for F0 (ES [effect size] < 0.2), however the α was higher for the traditional BP (ES: 0.68-0.94), and V0 (ES: 1.04-1.48) and P0 (ES: 0.65-0.72) for the ballistic BP. The F0 strongly correlated with BP 1RM (r: 0.915-0.938). The force-velocity relationship is useful to assess the upper-body maximal capabilities to generate force, velocity, and power.