Hd86 mRNA expression profile in Hyalomma scupense life stages, could it contribute to explain anti-tick vaccine effect discrepancy between adult and immature instars?

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Bm86 midgut protein has been used in order to control ticks of the Hyalomma genus. Previous studies demonstrated the inefficacity of this antigen in the control of Hyalomma scupense, whereas recombinant Hd86 antigen, the Bm86 ortholog in H. scupense produced in Pichia pastoris, was protective against larval H. scupense tick stage infestations but ineffective in the control of the adult stage. One possible explanation for this result is the variation in Hd86 expression levels between these two developmental stages. To test this hypothesis, Hd86 mRNA levels were characterized in H. scupense developmental stages. The expression profile of Hd86 demonstrated a significant variation between tick life stages and showed a significant reduction in the number of transcripts during feeding and, particularly after molting to adults. The most interesting result was noted after molting of engorged nymphs in unfed adults where the expression levels decreased significantly by 12.78 (10.77–17.39) (p