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Merged CMOS/Molecular Integrated Circuit Fabrication, Analysis, and Design

Journal article published in 1 by Nsf Nirt Grant, L. R. Harriott, M. Stan, J. C. Bean, M. Neurock, L. Pu
This paper was not found in any repository; the policy of its publisher is unknown or unclear.
This paper was not found in any repository; the policy of its publisher is unknown or unclear.

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Project overview: This project looks at nanoelectronics from a comprehensive viewpoint by considering how nano-devices and nano-circuits can be assembled, modeled and designed with the requirements of large-scale integration and manufacturability in mind 1 . Current microelectronics technology is dominated by silicon CMOS technology. As this technology is scaled to smaller dimensions and higher densities, eventually fundamental physical limits of MOS transistors will be reached. It is the hope of molecular electronics to replace the functionality of conventional circuits with new devices based single (or a small number) molecules. As with any new microelectronics technology, it is likely that molecular devices will be introduced in a somewhat gradual way. Molecular devices will be used for critical functions along with conventional CMOS for other functions. As the scale of integration increases, more and more of the functionality will shift to the molecular devices. The motivation for our program is to develop the underlying science and technology to enable integration of functional molecular devices with conventional electronics. It is then critical to understand materials compatibility and device performance issues at the outset. Our program includes efforts on molecular synthesis, basic device functionality, compatible materials and fabrication methods, device modeling, and higher level abstractions leading to functional circuit architectures. Our program is aimed at addressing these issues with a multi-disciplinary team spanning chemistry, chemical engineering, electrical engineering, and computer engineering. Project Goals: One of the main goals of the project is to develop fabrication methods that allow for integration of molecular devices with conventional CMOS circuits. We envision this to be a back-end process where modern integrated circuits use a variety of metals (Al, Cu, Ta, W, Ti, etc.) and insulators (SiO 2 , SiN, etc.) in multilevel metalization schemes that result in a complex 2.5 dimensional arrangement of contacts and wires. Near the end of the process sequence, the insulating layers would be etched away leaving pockets that by their shape, size and Cu endpoints, provide an ideal "home" for the target molecule. The completed template could then be rinsed in a solution containing these molecules, adding them to the structure. Since the volatile organics would not be subject to high temperature processing, this could provide a viable means of adding molecular electronic devices to underling microelectronic circuits. Second, we have developed device models of molecular devices. These models are essential if one is to anticipate novel computing architectures where molecular devices may function far differently from modern transistors, and where optimized circuit design my entail radically different patterns of device interconnection. Ultimately, we hope to close the loop on the entire process and feed back our circuit level results to the efforts in molecular synthesis and design as well as fabrication. Finally, a significant part of our effort is dedicated to education and outreach. The subject of nano-electronics is highly interdisciplinary and does not fall within the normal pedagogical bounds of engineering and scientific disciplines. We are developing a 3-D animation based website emphasizing the fundamentals of nano-device operation and integration.