Fungi and Actinomycetes Associated with Meloidogyne spp. Eggs and Females in China and Their Biocontrol Potential
A survey was conducted to determine the microflora on eggs and females of Meloidogyne spp. collected from plant roots and infested soil in China. A total of 455 fungal isolates belonging to 24 genera and 52 isolates of actinomycetes were obtained from 28 samples from greenhouses and fields in Hainan, Yunnan, Fujian, Hebei, Shandong, and Beijing. The predominant fungal species were Paecilomyces lilacinus (49.3% of the isolates), Fusarium spp. (7.9%), Pochonia chlamydosporia (6.9%), Penicillium spp. (5.7%), Aspergillus spp. (3.2%), and Acremonium spp. (2.8%). Actinomycetes were frequently encountered (10.3%) as well. A total of 350 isolates of nematophagous fungi and actinomycetes were evaluated for their parasitism of eggs and effects on egg hatch and juvenile mortality in vitro. Pathogenicity varied among isolates, and 29.1% of isolates parasitized over 90% eggs 4 days after inoculation. Results also show that seven isolates of fungi and actinomycetes reduced egg hatch rates to less than 10% contrasted to the control of 65.8%, and three isolates killed all hatched juveniles after 7 days. Seventeen fungal isolates and four actinomycete isolates with high pathogenicity in vitro were selected to test biocontrol efficacy in the greenhouse. They reduced tomato root gall index by 13.4-58.9% compared to the no treatment control.