Elsevier, Neuropsychiatrie de l'Enfance et de l'Adolescence, 3(63), p. 201-206
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Anti-NMDAR encephalitis is a serious central nervous system disorder, not well known, that may lead to non specific psychiatric symptoms, ranging from psychosis to catatonia. We report the case of a 15-year-old girl, without significant medical history, hospitalized in a context of first-episode psychosis, quickly followed by agitated and stuporous catatonia, with only poor response to benzodiazepine treatment. Titration of autoantibodies in the cerebrospinal fluid confirmed the diagnosis of anti-NMDAR encephalitis. Recovery was obtained thanks to corticotherapy and immunosuppressive agents. In complement to this clinical report, we propose a literature update on anti-NMDA-R encephalitis and the excitatory/inhibitory imbalance as the potential mechanism at the root of catatonia.