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Oxford University Press, The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 2021

DOI: 10.1210/clinem/dgab592

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BDV Syndrome: an Emerging Syndrome With Profound Obesity and Neurodevelopmental Delay Resembling Prader-Willi Syndrome

This paper is made freely available by the publisher.
This paper is made freely available by the publisher.

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Abstract

Abstract Context CPE encodes carboxypeptidase E, an enzyme that converts proneuropeptides and propeptide hormones to bioactive forms. It is widely expressed in the endocrine and central nervous system. To date, 4 individuals from 2 families with core clinical features including morbid obesity, neurodevelopmental delay, and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, harboring biallelic loss-of-function (LoF) CPE variants, have been reported. Objective We describe 4 affected individuals from 3 unrelated consanguineous families, 2 siblings of Syrian, 1 of Egyptian, and 1 of Pakistani descent, all harboring novel homozygous CPE LoF variants. Methods After excluding Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS), exome sequencing was performed in both Syrian siblings. The variants identified in the other 2 individuals were reported as research variants in a large-scale exome study and in the ClinVar database. Computational modeling of all possible missense alterations allowed assessing CPE tolerance to missense variants. Results All affected individuals were severely obese with neurodevelopmental delay and other endocrine anomalies. Three individuals from 2 families shared the same CPE homozygous truncating variant c.361C > T, p.(Arg121*), while the fourth carried the c.994del, p.(Ser333Alafs*22) variant. Comparison of clinical features with previously described cases and standardization according to the Human Phenotype Ontology terms indicated a recognizable clinical phenotype, which we termed Blakemore-Durmaz-Vasileiou (BDV) syndrome. Computational analysis indicated high conservation of CPE domains and intolerance to missense changes. Conclusion Biallelic truncating CPE variants are associated with BDV syndrome, a clinically recognizable monogenic recessive syndrome with childhood-onset obesity, neurodevelopmental delay, hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, and hypothyroidism. BDV syndrome resembles PWS. Our findings suggest missense variants may also be clinically relevant.