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American Medical Association, JAMA Oncology, 2023

DOI: 10.1001/jamaoncol.2022.7845



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Regorafenib, Ipilimumab, and Nivolumab for Patients With Microsatellite Stable Colorectal Cancer and Disease Progression With Prior Chemotherapy

Journal article published in 2023 by Marwan Fakih, Jaideep Sandhu, Dean Lim, Xiaochen Li, Sierra Li, Chongkai Wang
Distributing this paper is prohibited by the publisher
Distributing this paper is prohibited by the publisher

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Data provided by SHERPA/RoMEO


ImportanceImmunotherapy combinations with activity in patients with microsatellite stable (MSS) metastatic colorectal cancer need to be identified.ObjectiveTo determine the recommended phase 2 dose (RP2D) of regorafenib, ipilimumab, and nivolumab (RIN) and evaluate its activity in an expansion cohort of patients with MSS metastatic colorectal cancer.Design, Setting, and ParticipantsThis nonrandomized clinical trial was a single-center 3 + 3 dose de-escalation study with an effectiveness expansion cohort at the RP2D. After the identification of the RP2D, a study amendment was executed to explore a regorafenib dose optimization strategy to mitigate skin-related toxic effects. Study enrollment occurred between May 12, 2020, and January 21, 2022. The trial was conducted at a single academic center. A total of 39 patients with MSS metastatic colorectal cancer whose disease progressed after standard chemotherapy and who had not received prior regorafenib or anti–programmed cell death protein 1 therapy were included.InterventionsPatients received regorafenib daily for 21 days every 4 weeks; fixed-dose ipilimumab, 1 mg/kg, intravenously every 6 weeks; and fixed-dose nivolumab, 240 mg intravenously every 2 weeks. Patients were treated until progression, unacceptable toxic effects, or completion of 2 years of therapy.Main Outcomes and MeasuresThe primary end point was RP2D selection. Secondary end points were safety and overall response rate (ORR) according to the Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumours at the RP2D level.ResultsA total of 39 patients were enrolled, 23 (59.0%) were female, median age was 54 years (range, 25-75 years), 3 were Black (7.7%), and 26 were White (66.7%). No dose-limiting toxic effects were noted in the first 9 patients at the starting dose of RIN, with regorafenib dosed at 80 mg daily. No dose de-escalation was needed. This dose was declared the RP2D. Twenty more patients were enrolled at this level. The ORR, median progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS) in the RP2D cohort were 27.6%, 4 months (IQR, 2-9 months), and 20 months (IQR, 7 months to not estimable), respectively. For the 22 patients without liver metastases, the ORR, PFS, and OS were 36.4%, 5 months (IQR, 2-11), and greater than 22 months, respectively. A dose optimization cohort with regorafenib at 40 mg/d on cycle 1 and 80 mg/d on cycle 2 and beyond was associated with lower skin and immune toxic effects but had limited activity with stable disease for 5 of 10 patients as the best response.Conclusions and RelevanceResults of this nonrandomized clinical trial suggest that RIN at the RP2D demonstrated interesting clinical activity in patients with advanced MSS colorectal cancer without liver metastases. These findings should be confirmed in randomized clinical trials.Trial Identifier: NCT04362839