Published in

MDPI, International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 11(19), p. 6465, 2022

DOI: 10.3390/ijerph19116465



Export citation

Search in Google Scholar

Cultural Adaptation and Validity Testing of the Portuguese Version of the Health Literacy Questionnaire (HLQ)

This paper is made freely available by the publisher.
This paper is made freely available by the publisher.

Full text: Download

Green circle
Preprint: archiving allowed
Green circle
Postprint: archiving allowed
Green circle
Published version: archiving allowed
Data provided by SHERPA/RoMEO


Background: Health literacy is considered a determinant of self-management behaviors and health outcomes among people with diabetes. The assessment of health literacy is central to understanding the health needs of a population. This study aimed to adapt the Health Literacy Questionnaire (HLQ) to the Portuguese context and to examine the psychometric properties of a population of people with diabetes. Methods: Data were collected using a self-administrated questionnaire from 453 people with diabetes in a specialized diabetes care unit. Analysis included item difficulty level, composite scale reliability, and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Results: The HLQ showed that the items were easily understood by participants. Composite reliability ranged from 0.74 to 0.83. A nine-factor CFA model was fitted to the 44 items. Given the very restricted model, the fit was quite satisfactory [χ2wlsmv = 2147.3 (df = 866), p = 0.001; CFI = 0.931, TLI = 0.925, RMSEA = 0.057 (90% C.I. 0.054–0.060), and WRMR = 1.528]. Conclusion: The Portuguese version of the HLQ has shown satisfactory psychometric properties across its nine separate scales in people with diabetes. Given the strong observed properties of the HLQ across cultures, languages, and diseases, the HLQ is likely to be a useful tool in a range of Portuguese settings.