Published in

MDPI, Energies, 23(14), p. 7879, 2021

DOI: 10.3390/en14237879



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Optimal Control of Plug-In Electric Vehicles Charging for Composition of Frequency Regulation Services

This paper is made freely available by the publisher.
This paper is made freely available by the publisher.

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This paper presents a novel control system for the participation of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) in the provisioning of ancillary services for frequency regulation, in a way that is transparent to the driver and harmonized with the smart charging service requirements. Given a power-frequency droop curve, which specifies how the set of PEVs collectively participate to the provisioning of the frequency regulation service (we call this curve a “global” droop curve), we propose an algorithm to compute “local” droop curves (one for each PEV), which are optimized according to the current status of the PEV and the current progress of the smart recharging session. Once aggregated, the local droop curves match the global one (so that the PEVs contribute as expected to the provisioning of the ancillary service). One innovative aspect of the proposed algorithm is that it is specifically designed to be interoperable with the algorithms that control the PEV recharging process; hence, it is transparent to the PEV drivers. Simulation results are presented to validate the proposed solution.