Published in

MDPI, International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17(18), p. 9252, 2021

DOI: 10.3390/ijerph18179252



Export citation

Search in Google Scholar

Non-Conveyance Due to Patient-Initiated Refusal in Emergency Medical Services: A Retrospective Population-Based Registry Analysis Study in Riyadh Province, Saudi Arabia

This paper is made freely available by the publisher.
This paper is made freely available by the publisher.

Full text: Download

Green circle
Preprint: archiving allowed
Green circle
Postprint: archiving allowed
Green circle
Published version: archiving allowed
Data provided by SHERPA/RoMEO


This research study aimed to investigate the association between demographic and operational factors and emergency medical services (EMS) missions ending in non-conveyance (NC) due to patient-initiated refusal (PIR). We conducted a retrospective population-based registry study by analyzing 67,620 EMS missions dispatched to the scene during 2018 in the Riyadh province. First, the number and percentages of conveyances statuses were calculated. Then, using crude and adjusted linear and logistic regression analysis, we determined which characteristics were predictors of NC due to PIR. We found that 23,991 (34.4%) of missions ended in NC due to PIR, and 5969 ended in EMS-initiated refusal (8.6%). NC rates due to PIR were higher for women, adults, for missions in Riyadh city, during nighttime, for medical emergencies, and for advanced life support (ALS) crews. We also found the following additional predictors significantly associated with the odds of NC due to PIR in crude regression analyses: age category, geographical location, EMS-shift, time of call, emergency type, and response time. We conclude that the NC rate represents half of all missions for patients requesting EMS, and the rate in Riyadh city has increased compared to previous studies. Most NC cases occur for the highest urgency level of medical emergency type in Riyadh city during the nighttime with ALS crews. NC due to PIR involves younger patients more than elderly, and females more than males. This study’s findings have provided empirical evidence that indicate that conducting further studies involving EMS providers, patients, and the public to identify precise and detailed reasons is required.