Oxford University Press (OUP), Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 2021
Abstract Context Vitamin D has been linked with glucose and lipid metabolism. Men with impaired gonadal function have a higher risk of metabolic syndrome and mortality, and vitamin D status may be a reversible modulator. Objective This work aimed to determine the effect of daily vitamin D and calcium supplementation for 150 days on glucose and lipid homeostasis in infertile men. Methods A single-center, double-blinded, randomized clinical trial (NCT01304927) was conducted. A total of 307 infertile men were randomly assigned (1:1) to a single dose of 300 000 IU cholecalciferol followed by 1400 IU cholecalciferol + 500 mg of calcium daily (n = 151) or placebo (n = 156) for 150 days. Reported metabolic parameters including fasting plasma glucose, glycated hemoglobin A1c, fasting serum insulin, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), fasting plasma cholesterols, and triglycerides were secondary end points. The primary end point semen quality has previously been reported. Results Men receiving vitamin D supplementation improved their vitamin D status, whereas vitamin D status was aggravated in the placebo group characterized by higher serum parathyroid hormone. At the end of the trial, men receiving vitamin D supplementation had 13% lower fasting serum insulin concentrations compared with the placebo-treated group (65 vs 74 pmol/L, P = .018) and 19% lower HOMA-IR (2.2 vs 2.7, P = .025). Moreover, men in the vitamin D group had higher high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels (1.38 vs 1.32 mmol/L, P = .008) compared with the placebo group. Conclusion High-dose vitamin D supplementation has beneficial effects on glucose homeostasis and HDL cholesterol levels in infertile men.