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Nature Research, Nature Human Behaviour, 8(5), p. 1027-1045, 2021

DOI: 10.1038/s41562-021-01108-6



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Mapping inequalities in exclusive breastfeeding in low- and middle-income countries, 2000-2018.

Journal article published in 2021 by Megan F. Schipp, B. Suresh Kumar Shetty, M.-D. Ismail Tareque, Nicole Davis Weaver, Maysaa El Sayed Zaki, Maha El Tantawi, Hagos Degefa de Hidru, Hay Si, Carlo La Vecchia, Zahiruddin Quazi Syed, Debarka Sengupta, Subramanian Senthilkumaran, Feng Sha, Omid Shafaat, Amira A. Shaheen and other authors.
This paper is made freely available by the publisher.
This paper is made freely available by the publisher.

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AbstractExclusive breastfeeding (EBF)—giving infants only breast-milk for the first 6 months of life—is a component of optimal breastfeeding practices effective in preventing child morbidity and mortality. EBF practices are known to vary by population and comparable subnational estimates of prevalence and progress across low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) are required for planning policy and interventions. Here we present a geospatial analysis of EBF prevalence estimates from 2000 to 2018 across 94 LMICs mapped to policy-relevant administrative units (for example, districts), quantify subnational inequalities and their changes over time, and estimate probabilities of meeting the World Health Organization’s Global Nutrition Target (WHO GNT) of ≥70% EBF prevalence by 2030. While six LMICs are projected to meet the WHO GNT of ≥70% EBF prevalence at a national scale, only three are predicted to meet the target in all their district-level units by 2030.