Magnolia Press, Zootaxa, 2(4933), p. 151-197, 2021
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The Caspiinae comprise small gastropod species inhabiting low-salinity environments of the Pontocaspian region, specifically the Caspian Sea and the limans, estuaries and lower river reaches of the northern Black Sea Basin. There is considerable discrepancy in the literature as to which taxa are attributed to this hydrobiid subfamily, which of them are valid and what rank they have. Moreover, the generic classification is not agreed upon. Here, we aim at elucidating systematic relationships and species identities by a thorough taxonomic and systematic revision of the Caspiinae, including a detailed morphological study along with information on biogeography, ecology, conservation and fossil record. We use historical and recent collections from all around the Pontocaspian region acquired over the past 170 years, including several type series that were only recently discovered as well as selected Pleistocene and Holocene materials. Several of the species are illustrated properly here for the first time, using both macrophotographs and scanning electron microscopy images to facilitate evaluation of morphological details. The genus Andrusovia, which has been classified in a number of different families and even gastropod subclasses before, is here attributed to the Caspiinae. By designating a lectotype for the type species, A. dybowskii, we finally fix the identity of this previously ambiguous species and genus. Our revision yields four genera and eleven accepted species of Caspiinae for the modern Pontocaspian fauna: Andrusovia (1), Caspia (1), Clathrocaspia (7) and Ulskia (2). In addition, two species of uncertain status (1 nomen dubium, 1 taxon inquirendum) are discussed, and two species introduced as Caspiinae are here found not to belong in that group. Andrusovia antecessor sp. nov. and Andrusovia cyrensis sp. nov. are introduced as new (sub)fossil species from the Caspian Sea.