Published in

MDPI, Foods, 12(9), p. 1852, 2020

DOI: 10.3390/foods9121852



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Biomanufacturing of Tomato-Derived Nanovesicles

This paper is made freely available by the publisher.
This paper is made freely available by the publisher.

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Data provided by SHERPA/RoMEO


Micro- and nano-sized vesicles (MVs and NVs, respectively) from edible plant resources are gaining increasing interest as green, sustainable, and biocompatible materials for the development of next-generation delivery vectors. The isolation of vesicles from complex plant matrix is a significant challenge considering the trade-off between yield and purity. Here, we used differential ultracentrifugation (dUC) for the bulk production of MVs and NVs from tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) fruit and analyzed their physical and morphological characteristics and biocargo profiles. The protein and phospholipid cargo shared considerable similarities between MVs and NVs. Phosphatidic acid was the most abundant phospholipid identified in NVs and MVs. The bulk vesicle isolates were further purified using sucrose density gradient ultracentrifugation (gUC) or size-exclusion chromatography (SEC). We showed that SEC using gravity column efficiently removed co-purifying matrix components including proteins and small molecular species. dUC/SEC yielded a high yield of purified vesicles in terms of number of particles (2.6 × 1015 particles) and protein quantities (6.9 ± 1.5 mg) per kilogram of tomato. dUC/gUC method separated two vesicle populations on the basis of buoyant density. Proteomics and in silico studies of the SEC-purified MVs and NVs support the presence of different intra- and extracellular vesicles with highly abundant lipoxygenase (LOX), ATPases, and heat shock proteins (HSPs), as well as a set of proteins that overlaps with that previously reported in tomato chromoplast.