Published in

Oxford University Press (OUP), Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 2020

DOI: 10.1210/clinem/dgaa440

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Marked Increase in Incident Gynecomastia: A 20-Year National Registry Study, 1998 to 2017

This paper was not found in any repository, but could be made available legally by the author.
This paper was not found in any repository, but could be made available legally by the author.

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Abstract

Abstract Context Gynecomastia, the proliferation of mammary glandular tissue in the male, is a frequent but little studied condition. Available prevalence data are based on selected patient populations or autopsy cases with their inherent bias. Objective To evaluate the age-related incidence and secular trends in gynecomastia in the general population. Design Observational, 20-year national registry study. Setting Population-based study using nationwide registry data. Participants All Danish males (0-80 years) with a first-time diagnosis of gynecomastia. Intervention( s): NA Main outcome measures All Danish males (0-80 years) were followed-up for incident diagnosis of gynecomastia in the Danish National Patient Registry from 1998-2017 using International Codes of Diseases, ICD-10 and the Danish Health Care Classification System. Age specific incidence rates were estimated. The hypothesis tested in this study was formulated prior to data collection. Results Overall a total 17,601 males (0-80 years) were registered with an incident diagnosis of gynecomastia within the 20-year study period, corresponding to 880 new cases per year and an average 20-year incidence of 3.4 per 10,000 men (0-80 years). The average annual incidence was 6.5/10,000 in post-pubertal males age 16-20 years and 4.6/10,000 in males age 61-80 years, with a respective 5 and 11-fold overall increase in these two age-groups over the 20-year period. Conclusions The incidence of gynecomastia has dramatically increased over the last 20 years implying that the endogenous or exogenous sex steroid environment has changed, which is associated with other adverse health consequences in men such as an increased risk of prostate cancer, metabolic syndrome, diabetes type 2 or cardiovascular disorders