Elsevier, Archives of Oral Biology, (116), p. 104749, 2020
Objective The purpose of this systematic review was to assess the influence of population demographic characteristics on the prevalence of a second canal in mandibular anterior teeth. Design Four electronic databases and five peer-reviewed journals were searched from May 2018 to September 2019 for prevalence studies using cone-beam computed tomographic imaging on second canal morphology in mandibular anterior teeth. The identified studies were subjected to a hand search of bibliographic references followed by contact with the authors. Full text analysis and critical appraisal (JBI) was undertaken on 40 papers by 2 evaluators. Sixteen studies were included into a meta-analysis. Forest plots with proportion and odds ratios with a 95% confidence interval were calculated. Meta-regression was performed in order to identify possible sources of heterogeneity. Results The 16 selected studies presented an average JBI score of 77.7% and revealed data from 40,784 mandibular anterior teeth (14,278 central incisors, 14,433 lateral incisors, and 12,073 canines). The overall prevalence of a second canal for central incisors, lateral incisors and canines was 20.4% (15.0%-25.7% CI 95%), 25.3% (20.0%-30.7% CI 95%) and 5.9% (4.1%-7.7% CI 95%), respectively. Males showed significantly higher odds of having a second canal for both incisors (p < 0.05). East Asia studies presented lower proportions of a second canal in mandibular anterior teeth (p < 0.05). Conclusions The overall prevalence of a second canal in the mandibular central and lateral incisors and canines was 20.4%, 25.3% and 5.9%, respectively. Meta-analysis calculation revealed gender and patient geographic origin as possible confounding factors of the proportion outcomes.