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JMIR Publications, JMIR Research Protocols, 1(9), p. e14820, 2020

DOI: 10.2196/14820



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The Association Between Selected Molecular Biomarkers and Ambulatory Blood Pressure Patterns in African Chronic Kidney Disease and Hypertensive Patients Compared With Normotensive Controls: Protocol for a Longitudinal Study

This paper is made freely available by the publisher.
This paper is made freely available by the publisher.

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Background Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a burgeoning epidemic in sub-Saharan Africa. Abnormal blood pressure variations are prevalent in CKD and potentiate the risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Certain genetic variants (angiotensin II receptor type 1 1166 A>C and angiotensin-converting enzyme insertion and deletion polymorphisms) and biomarkers such as interleukin–6, tumor necrosis factor, soluble (s) E-selectin, homocysteine, and highly sensitive C-reactive protein have been shown to affect blood pressure variability among non-African CKD, hypertensive. and nonhypertensive CKD population. However, the contributions of the pattern, genetic, and environmental determinants of ambulatory blood pressure in African CKD have not been characterized. Understanding these interactions may help to develop interventions to prevent major cardiovascular events among people with CKD. Objective The overarching objective of this study is to identify, document, and develop approaches to address related phenomic, genetic, and environmental determinants of ambulatory blood pressure patterns in African CKD and non-CKD hypertensive patients compared with normotensive controls. Methods This is a longitudinal short-term follow-up study of 200 adult subjects with CKD and 200 each of age-matched hypertensives without CKD and apparently healthy controls. Demographic information, detailed clinical profile, electrocardiography, echocardiography, and 24-hr ambulatory blood pressure measurements will be obtained. Blood samples will be collected to determine albumin-creatinine ratio, fasting plasma glucose, lipid profile, electrolytes, urea and creatinine, C-reactive protein, serum homocysteine, fibroblast growth factor–23, and complete blood count, while 2 mL blood aliquot will be collected in EDTA (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid) tubes and mixed using an electronic rolling system to prevent blood clots and subsequently used for DNA extraction and genetic analysis. Results A total of 239 participants have been recruited so far, and it is expected that the recruitment phase will be complete in June 2020. The follow-up phase will continue with data analysis and publications of results. Conclusions This study will help stratify Nigerian CKD patients phenotypically and genotypically in terms of their blood pressure variations with implications for targeted interventions and timing of medications to improve prognosis. International Registered Report Identifier (IRRID) DERR1-10.2196/14820