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BMJ Publishing Group, BMJ Open Diabetes Research and Care, 1(8), p. e000961, 2020

DOI: 10.1136/bmjdrc-2019-000961



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Serum vitamin K1 associated to microangiopathy and/or macroangiopathy in individuals with and without diabetes

This paper is made freely available by the publisher.
This paper is made freely available by the publisher.

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ObjectiveVitamin K has proposed beneficial effects on cardiovascular health. We investigated whether serum vitamin K1 was associated with prevalence of microangiopathy and/or macroangiopathy.Research design and methodsSerum vitamin K was quantified in 3239 individuals with and 3808 without diabetes enrolled in Vejle Diabetes Biobank (2007–2010). Each individual was assessed for microangiography and macroangiopathy at enrollment based on registered diagnoses in the Danish National Patient Registry according to the International Classification of Disease 8 (1977–1993) and 10 (since 1994). Using multinomial logistic regression, relative risk ratios (RRRs) were calculated within each group of individuals with and without diabetes. RRRs were estimated for microangiopathic/macroangiopathic status compared with individuals without complications as a function of 1 nmol/L increments in K1. Adjustment for potential confounders was also performed.ResultsVitamin K1 (median) varied 0.86–0.95 nmol/L depending on diabetes, microangiopathic and macroangiopathic status. In individuals with diabetes, the crude RRR for only having microangiopathy was 1.05 (95% CI 0.98 to 1.12) and was found significant when adjusting 1.10 (95% CI 1.01 to 1.19). RRR for having only macroangiopathy was 0.89 (95% CI 0.77 to 1.03) and was again significant when adjusting 0.79 (95% CI 0.66 to 0.96). In individuals without diabetes, adjustments again led to similar estimates that was not significant. The adjusted RRR for having only macroangiopathy was 1.08 (95% CI 0.98 to 1.19).ConclusionsSerum vitamin K1 levels were associated with microangiopathic and macroangiopathic status in individuals with diabetes, but considered of no clinical relevance. The clinical value of other candidate markers for vitamin K status needs to be evaluated in future studies.